Tens of millions of people suffer injuries or disabilities every year from traffic accidents. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), injuries caused by traffic accidents are the leading cause of death in the 15-29 age group. Added to this are the thousands of children around the world who end up with traffic accident-related disabilities, many of them permanent.
On the occasion of the International Day of People with Disabilities on 3 December, the Children's Road Safety section of the Accident Prevention and Road Safety division of Fundación MAPFRE would like to stress the enormous impact that road traffic accidents have on disabilities in children.
Some 23% of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 2014 in Spain were children under the age of 14. In addition there were 351 serious injuries in 2014. This figure includes all those children who incurred a permanent disability as the result of a traffic accident.
According to figures from the WHO for 2012, traffic accidents were the fourth cause of death in children aged 5-9 and the third cause of death in children aged 10-14. They move up to occupy the leading cause of death as a result of injuries caused by traffic accidents in the 15-17 age bracket, as reflected in the article "Ten strategies to protect children's safety on the roads".
On a global level, the last World Report on Disability from the WHO states that 15.6% of the world's population (785 million people) have some form of disability.
Some children are born with an impairment or a disabling health problem, while others can develop a disability as a result of diseases, injuries or malnutrition. This is where the reduction in the number of traffic accidents plays a key role. The "Goal Zero" initiative seeks to achieve zero traffic accident victims, whether this refers to fatalities or injuries.
Greatrer chance of suffering an accident
As the WHO points out, children are at much greater risk of suffering an injury in traffic accidents than other passengers. The reasons for this include their physical, cognitive and social development, which are much more limited than adults and hence make them more vulnerable.
To add to their difficulties as pedestrians or cyclists, their bodies, as a general rule, are still developing. For example, their skulls are much softer, which makes them more susceptible to suffering serious cranial injury.
CRS to avoid a consequences
Child restraint systems (CRS) are undoubtedly the best way of avoiding the potential consequences of a traffic accident. In this case, we are talking about when children are traveling as passengers.
If used properly, child seats can reduce the annual child fatality rate by around 70% in the under-ones, and between 54% and 80% in young children.
The importance of the right care after an accident
One of the points addressed by the WHO in its article "Ten strategies for keeping children safe on the road" is the importance of providing injured children with the right aftercare.
As well as reinforcing emergency care and rehabilitation services when children are involved, other specific measures need to be taken to enable carers and teachers to be able to stabilize injured children immediately and safely and to trigger formal or informal activation plans in order to get them to medical centers. It also argues the need to teach people involved in prehospital and hospital care about the physiological differences between children and adults and the means of fulfilling the diverse treatment needs of children, as well as the importance of equipping emergency vehicles with specific medical equipment and supplies.
The WHO also advocates improving pediatric rehabilitation, especially requirements for rehabilitation at home, and to include access to community rehabilitation centers; also to improve access to counseling services to alleviate the undefined effects on children and their families that stem from injuries caused by traffic accidents, and to address practical issues that include, among others, legal and financial matters.
We at Fundación MAPFRE have produced the report "Children with special needs and their safety in the car" (Spanish), where we address the importance of prompt and professional care, as well as the need for children with disabilities to be adequately protected when traveling by car.
In fact, it is estimated that in Spain there is a minimum of 60,000 children with special needs in respect of traveling by automobile, although the true figure is probably much higher.