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Legislación en otros países
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The legislative amendments of 10 January 2018 establish that children under the age of 10 must travel securely on the rear seat, with an approved child restraint system suitable for their weight and size.

This same legislation outlines in its article 30 that "Driving with a number of passengers which is not the correct capacity for the vehicle or driving with children under the age of 10 on the rear seats who do not have the approved child restraint systems suitable for their weight and size will be penalized with a 150 U.F. (Fixed Unit) to 500 U.F. fine and 5 points will be taken off your driving license. “ 

The legal references are given below:

Buenos Aires:

 
Act no. 5294 establishes the compulsory nature of using CRS devices and the ban on traveling on the front seats for all children from birth up to 12 years old, who are under 1.5 meters tall or who weigh less than 36 kg.
 
These child restraint systems should also be duly approved and fulfill the requirements established in any of the following regulations:
  • IRAM 3680-1 and 3680-2 (Argentina)
  • FMVSS213 (United States)
  • UNECER44/04 (European Union)
  • AS/NZS 1754 (Australia and New Zealand)
  • INMETRONBR 14,400 (Brazil)

In Brazil, the law states that children should be protected when traveling by car, in the following way:

  • Children under ten should travel in the rear seat, with the exception of pickup trucks
  • Children can be transported in the front seat, with the corresponding restraint system, when the rear seat of the vehicle only has a two-point seat belt (these belts do not allow fastening of the system as regulated in Brazil), and as long as care is taken (seat in the maximum back position, etc.).
  • Children under 7 and a half should use suitable restraint systems. Children over this age should use the seat belt, like other passengers.
  • The requirements for children under seven and a half are not applied to group transport (like rental vehicles), nor to independent passenger transport (taxis) nor to school buses and other vehicles with a gross weight above 3.5 tons (such as trucks and buses).

FINES: According to Article 168 of the Traffic Code, it is a serious offence to transport children in a vehicle while failing to meet the regulations stipulated in the code, with a fine or withdrawal of the vehicle as an administrative measure until the offence or infringement has been clarified.
Legal references are:

In Chile, the law states that children should be protected when traveling by car, in the following way:

  • Seat belts will be compulsory for passengers in the front seats. This is also compulsory for passengers in the rear seats of light vehicles, defined by the supreme decree of the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications, with date of manufacture in 2002 or later. 
  • It is forbidden to transport minors under 8 in front seats of cars, pickup trucks, trucks and similar, except in single-cabin vehicles.
  • Drivers will be responsible for the compulsory use of child seats for minors under 4 traveling in the rear seats of light-weight vehicles, in accordance with the stipulations and schedule set by the regulations.
  • Exceptions to these obligations are  passenger transport services in taxis, of any category.

There is also a specific Law stipulating the requirements of child seats:

  • Decree number 176 of 24 November 2006

Regarding the requirements of child seats for minors under four traveling in the rear seat of light-weight vehicles. Their use and installation is also stipulated. Article 1 is important: 

Article 1: on the method of installing seats and the safety measures that should be adopted.
"Child seats for minors under four traveling in the rear seat of light-weight vehicles, to which article 79 of the Traffic Law no 18.290 refers, named for the purposes of these regulations, "the child safety system or seat", should at least meet the following safety, design and user information requirements:

  1. The system should provide protection in all positions of use for which it was designed.
  2. If the safety system or seat is fastened to the vehicle by means of one or more seat belts of the vehicle, the correct way to fasten them should be clearly indicated, both for safety seats facing forwards and those facing backwards. Both concepts (forwards and backwards) for the purposes of these regulations, refer to the normal direction of travel of the vehicle.
  3. If the safety system or seat is used in combination with a seat belt of the vehicle, the correct arrangement www.bcn.cl - National Congress Library of Chile, of the straps should be clearly indicated on a permanent sticker adhered to the safety system or seat.
  4. As these safety systems or seats are to transport children in a sitting position, the waist straps of the safety system or seat should have guides which enable the retention force to be transmitted to the hips.
  5. In safety systems or seats with a fitted harness and which is installed facing forwards of the vehicle, in order to prevent the submarine effect (sliding underneath the harness), either as a result of a collision or the child's movements, a crotch strap will also be necessary.
  6. The buckles should be easy to use, and they should be possible to open and release the child from the safety system or seat by simply pressing a button or another similar mechanism. When opening the buckle, it should be possible to remove the child independently from the safety seat and its components. If the seat has a crotch strap, it should be released through the buckle itself.
  7. It should not be possible to leave the buckle in a partially closed position, and it should only remain locked when all the parts have been correctly adjusted. The place where the buckle is released should be red; none of the other areas should be this color.
  8. The design of the safety seat should provide protection even when the child is asleep. The design of safety seats that face forwards, should include a headrest for the child. 
  9. The safety system or seat should have the following information clearly indicated in Spanish:9.1. Name of the manufacturer or registered trademark.9.2. Year of manufacture.9.3. Weight range of the child for whom it was designed.9.4. Address to which the purchaser may write for further information on the most suitable use of the safety system or seat in a specific vehicle or other aspects.
  10. Safety systems of seats designed to face backwards should have a permanent, visible label warning users of the danger of placing them in vehicles with front airbags, alerting users to the risk of injury involved.
  11. Safety systems or seats designed to face both backwards and forwards, should have a permanent, visible label warning users not to face it forwards unless the child reaches a given limit, or until the child reaches certain height specifications.
  12. The safety system or seat should be accompanied by clear instructions in Spanish, including at least the following: 12.1 Weight range for which the system or www.bcn.cl - National Congress Library of Chile safety system is designed".
FINES: according to article 200, it is a serious offence not to use the elements indicated in the last section of article 75 (regarding the obligation of Child Restraint Systems and seat belts).

Corresponding legal references:

In Columbia, the law states that children should be protected when traveling by car, in the following way:

  • Children under 10 cannot travel in the front seat of a vehicle.
  • For safety reasons, children under 2 can only travel in the back seat using a seat that guarantees safety and enables children to be fastened, whenever the minor travels only in the company of the driver.

FINES: fines of 8 minimum salaries are liable plus the immobilization of the vehicle if children under 10 are transported in the front seat.

The corresponding  legal reference is LAW 769 OF 2002 (August 6, the reference has been taken from article 82) through which the National Code of Road Traffic and other provisions are issued.

Firstly there are references to child safety in the Costa Rica Traffic Law 9076.

  • According to Article 94 of the Costa Rica Traffic Law 9078

“Minors under twelve who are less than 1.56 meters in height, should travel in the rear seat of the vehicle. A child restraint system should be adapted. The technical specifications will be defined  by law. As an exception, children may travel in the front passenger seat using a child restraint system, when required for duly accredited medical reasons, or when, the design of the vehicle does not include rear seats.
The use of child restraint systems is excluded in public transport of people in taxis, special stable taxi service, buses or mini-buses on regular routes, and special service buses or mini-buses, except in the special transport service of students, when provided to children under twelve, who measure less than 1.45 meters in height”.

FINES: according to Article 144 of the Costa Rica Traffic Law 144, a fine of 189000 colones is imposed on any driver who allows children under twelve and with a height less than 1.45 meters to travel without safety systems.
There are also Regulations concerning carrying and using Child Restraint Systems. These include aspects such as the elements of Child Restraint Systems, the division of groups by age, weight and height and they detail the correct installation of these systems.
The second article stipulates the division of groups by age, weight and height for child restraint systems:

GROUP AGE
WEIGHT HEIGHT
Group 0 0 months to 1 year Less than 10 Kg Up to 75 cm
Group 0+ 0 months to 1 year Less than 13 Kg Up to 75 cm
Group I 1-4 years 9-18 Kg 75-110 cm
Group II 4-6 years 15-25 Kg 110-145 cm
Group III 6-12 years 22-36 Kg 110-145 cm

Groups 0 and 0+ “should travel in cars in a Baby Carrier system facing the opposite direction from the traffic, in the center rear seat, (as long as the system can be installed correctly in this position, otherwise it will be placed in the position where it can be installed correctly), if there is only one system; or behind the passenger seat, if there are two. The lightest child will be placed in the center and the second child behind the passenger seat; if there is a third system, it will be placed behind the driver's seat".
Children belonging to group I “should travel in cards in a safety seat system which provides side protection against the possible entry of any object in the vehicle. This system should be placed facing the traffic, in the center rear seat (as long as the system can be installed correctly in this position, otherwise it will be placed in the position where it can be installed correctly), if there is only one system. For two children in the same group, the lightest child will be placed in the center and the second child behind the passenger seat. If there is a third system, it will be placed behind the driver's seat".
Children belonging to group II “should travel in cars in a raised or booster seat system. These devices enable the seat belt to be adjusted correctly over the shoulder and pelvis, and prevent the minor from sliding under the seat belt, which is known as the "submarine effect". The system should have a back rest to provide side protection against the possible entry of any object in the vehicle. This system should be placed in the direction of the traffic (forwards). All children in this group should travel in the back of the vehicle, in one of the side positions (as long as the system can be installed correctly in this position), using the three-point seat belts of the vehicle manufacturer, or in the center if the vehicle  has three-point seat belts. Vehicles that were originally installed with two-point belts, can be adapted accordingly".
Children belonging to group III “should travel in cars in a raised or booster seat system without a backrest. This system should be placed in the direction of the traffic  (forwards). All children in this group should travel in the back of the vehicle, in one of the side positions (as long as the system can be installed correctly in this position, otherwise it will be placed in the position where it can be installed correctly), using  the three-point seat belts of the vehicle manufacturer, or in the center if the vehicle  has three-point seat belts. Vehicles that were originally installed with two-point belts, can be adapted accordingly".
The legal references are given below:

References in the Cuba Traffic Code:

  • Article 97 sections 7 and 8 of the Cuba Traffic Code

“Anyone driving a vehicle is obliged to concentrate all their attention on control and steering and to avoid any distraction, it is therefore forbidden:
7) to drive with children under 12 in the front seat
8) to transport children under two who are unaccompanied  by adults or without special systems intended for these purposes”
Corresponding legal references:

In Ecuador, the law states that children should be protected when traveling by car, in the following way: 

  • Drivers may not transport children under 12 in the front seat, or those which because of their height cannot be fastened by seat belts. They should travel in the rear seats, and all legally stipulated safety measures should be taken.
  • Drivers are obliged to have all the equipment required in their vehicles when transporting minors or children, similarly to when transporting people of different capacities.
  • Drivers will take all safety measures as necessary, to avoid passengers, particularly minors or children, from traveling in a standing position in a vehicle, to avoid them extending limbs out of the window, and not to open the doors of the vehicle when moving.
  • Passengers and own-account transport passengers have the following obligations: […]Not to travel with children on their lap or beside the driver;
  • In the case of children passengers under the age of 12, the adults supervising them are obliged to meet the following safety regulations:
    Children should be seated in the rear seats of the vehicle, always with the seat belt fastened correctly and in accordance with the weight and age of the child, or using a safety seat, in compliance with the regulations stipulated by the Directorate of the National Traffic Agency;
  • As part of the prevention and safety regulations to transport children and teenagers, school transport vehicles will be subject to speed limits and driving restrictions, signs and identities will be used in order to identify, alert and avoid risks during driving and traffic accidents, with suitable space inside the vehicle, approved child safety systems and seat belts depending on the type of passengers.

Legal Reference:

  • Traffic Law downloaded from the following link [consulted on 13/02/2019]
  • Traffic Regulations: downloaded from the following link (references taken from articles 277, 278, 279, 298 section1 and 62 section 1 – the latter two on school transport and own account transport) [consulted on 13/02/2019]

The Regulations stipulate the following:
In accordance with Article 183 of the El Salvador General Traffic Regulations,
"For transport in cars of children under two or with a weight of less than fifteen kilograms, the vehicle should have a safety seat correctly fastened by seat belts".
Legal Reference:

The following is a summary of the law that regulates the use of CRS’s in Florida:

Any child under six must use a child restraining system:

  • Children under four years of age must use an infant seat or one that is integrated into the car seat.
  • Children between four and fives years old can use a child seat, an integrated seat or the seatbelt.

When registering a vehicle information on this regulation is supplied.

A fine of 60 $ and points on the driving license. The points can be substituted for a course on child vehicle safety.

Police controls are the primary action, that is to say, the police can stop a vehicle and fine the driver if they see that a child is not using an appropriate child seat. The police officer has the power to do this when a child up to six years old, is found to be travelling in the front seat and for children between 6 and 17 years old travelling in any seat.

Using the following link you can view all the regulations.

http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&URL=0300-0399/0316/0316.html

There is no law in Guatemala regarding the use of child seats in vehicles. It is indicated that "it is possible to drive without seat belts or another authorized restraint system... drivers and passengers of a height less than 1.50 meters".
The corresponding legal references are the GOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT NUMBER 273-98 dated 22 May 1998 "Traffic Regulations".
WARNING
Owing to the fact that laws periodically change, it is recommended to check the validity of this information, consulted on 13/02/2019.

In Hondurans, the only reference to the use of child restraint systems is article 99 of the Traffic Law, where it is indicated that "less serious offences are: ... driving without a seat belt for drivers and passengers, and not to ensure the protection of children under five (5), who must be in the rear seat of the vehicle".
The corresponding legal reference corresponds to Decree 205 of 205 of the Traffic Law.
WARNING
Owing to the fact that laws periodically change, it is recommended to check the validity of this information, consulted on 13/02/2019.

In Massachusetts, the use of a CRS is regulated in the following manner:

Section 7AA. Passenger in a vehicle under 8 years of age must use a CRS until they reach at least 145cm in height. The restraining device must be fastened and correctly installed according to the manufacturers instructions.

Apart from the cases mentioned in the previous paragraph (children under 8 years old), passengers under 13 years old must wear a seatbelt correctly adjusted and fastened according to the manufacturers instructions.

The exceptions are: (1) passengers on school transport; (2) passengers in vehicles made before the 1st of July1966, that don’t have seatbelts; (3) those physically incapable of using special seats, but they must have a medical certificate to exempt them from using this type of seat. The professional issuing the certificate will be responsible.

A 25$ fine. The police control is regarded as secondary, which is to say that the police cannot stop a vehicle and fine the driver just because they noticed that one of the children is not using a suitable child seat, they must have stopped the vehicle previously for some other reason. If this occurs then they are covered by the regulations covering children from 13 years of age and up, who are travelling as passengers on any seat. (NOTE: 0 POINTS ARE AWARDED UNDER THE SECTION “INSPECTION”)

The following link it to the complete regulations:

https://malegislature.gov/Laws/GeneralLaws/PartI/TitleXIV/Chapter90/Section7AA

In the state of Mexico, for example "it forbidden for drivers... to transport children under 12 in the front seats of vehicles. In the rear seat, child carrier seats should be used for children up to 5 years of age". In the state of Monterrey, "children up to 4 years and/or of a height less than 95 cm. should use a baby carrier and should be fastened by the seat belt. They should travel in the rear seat when the vehicle has one". (Article 6 of the Metropolitan Traffic Regulations) 

Child Restraint Systems in Mexico at federal level:
Based on this, the following table has been drawn up:

In this country, the law stipulates the following:

  • Article 37 Use of safety systems in vehicles and helmets for motorcyclists. Drivers of vehicles should guarantee and ensure that children under seven use suitable seats or child restraint systems. It is forbidden to transport children under seven in the front seat. Drivers are obliged to use the aforementioned safety systems and other protection elements as stipulated by the regulations.

FINES: (According to Article 26, point 29) of the Traffic Law 431 of 2014, transporting children under seven in the front seat or in the rear seat without a seat belt or child restraint system implies a fine of 350 cordobas (C$).
The legal reference is the following:

Very briefly, the legislation makes it clear that restraining devices must be used up to eight years of age or until the child reaches a height of 145cm. The groups are therefore divided in the following manner:

-children under 4 years of age or 40lbs (18kg) must use an approved child seat.

-children under 8 years of age that are over approximately 145cm in height must use a booster seat.

-children between 8 and 15 years of age must use a seatbelt or an approved booster seat and from 15 years of age, the car seatbelt.

None of this applies to taxis or emergency vehicles.

Non-compliance carries a fine of 25 $.

References are the following:

http://codes.ohio.gov/orc/4511.81

http://www.healthy.ohio.gov/vipp/cps/Child Passenger Safety Law.aspx

http://www.dmv.org/oh-ohio/safety-laws.php

There are some references on this issue:
  • Article 127 of the Panama Traffic Regulations:

“Passengers aged under five (5) cannot travel in the front seat of the vehicle, except in vehicles with one single cabin.  Children under two (2) traveling alone in the rear seat should use a seat that guarantees safety and correct fastening to the seat".

  • Article 132 section m) of the Panama Traffic Regulations:

“It is forbidden for drivers:
[…]
m) To transport children under two (2) in the rear seat without using a proper safety seat”.

FINES : According to Article 241  - point 33 of the table of traffic offences, transporting minors without safety measures implies a fine of 5 points and 100 balboas.

Corresponding legal references:

References to Child Restraint Systems are found in:
  • Article 58 section g) of the National Traffic Law of Paraguay:
"Requirements for driving. To drive a vehicle, it is essential:
g) That the number of passengers corresponds to the capacity for which the vehicle was designed and that they do not obstruct the driver. Children under 10 (ten) should travel in the rear seat, and children under 5 (five) in special safety seats
.
Corresponding legal references:

Law 30297 of December 2014 (updated in January 2015) stipulates that it is compulsory (according to articles 1 and 2) to use Child Restraint Systems inside cars:
Article three classifies the different groups of children by age:

GROUP AGE
POSITION
Group 0 Up to one year They will travel with a Child Restraint System facing the rear seat in the opposite direction of traffic
Group I Between 1 and 3 years of age They will travel with Child Restraint Systems according to their height
Group II Between 3 and 12 years of age With seat belt
Legal references:

The law obliges children under 150 cm tall and under 12 years old to travel in the back seats of vehicles using a child restraint system appropriate to their age, height and weight. 

Failure to comply with the regulations incurs a fine of P1,000 for a first offense and P2.000 for the second. The fine increases to P5.000 for any subsequent offenses. Additionally, if you receive more than three fines, you can lose your license for a year.

The regulations allow for some exceptions:

  • In medical emergencies.
  • When the child being transported has a special medical or developmental condition.
  • Other analogous situations.

Obviously, the child must always be accompanied by an adult.

The child restraint system must comply with the latest European Union certification standards (R44-04 and R-129) and bear the Philippines official standards mark for it to be marketed in the country: Philippine Standard (PS). The label showing the importation authorization certificate must be visible on the seat. 

The regulations also do not allow the manufacture, use, importing, sale, distribution, donation, leasing, advertising, promotion or marketing of child restraint systems that are either deficient or not officially approved.

Legal reference:

- Republic Act 11229 of the Child Safety in Motor Vehicles Act

ACT 63-17 on Mobility, Ground Transportation, Transit and Road Safety of the Dominican Republic, in its article 69 sets forth that: “Children up to twelve (12) years old shall be transported in the vehicle's rear seats, except when the vehicle is a type of truck with one (1) cabin. Children up to six (6) years old shall be transported in a special forward-facing child seat and children over six (6) years old and up to twelve (12) years old must use a booster seat which will enable them to safely use the seat belt on the rear seat.

PENALTY: Breaching this provision shall be sanctioned with a fine equivalent to one (1) to three (3) minimum wages within the centralized public sector, and a loss of points from the license as determined by the regulation. The vehicle shall not drive off until the minors are seated in the places established by law.

Relevant legal reference:

- Act 63-17, on Mobility, Ground Transportation, Transit and Road Safety of the Dominican Republic

References in:

  • Article 5 of Decree 121/989 of Uruguay (attached below in PDF of the National Regulations of Traffic of Uruguay 2009):

"In all motor vehicles with more than two wheels, children under 12 inclusive may only travel in the rear seats".

  • Law 19.06.  Provisions regarding the transport and fastening of children and teenagers in vehicles.

Article one stipulates that it is compulsory for children aged 0 to 12, and all those measuring less than 1.50 meters to travel in the rear seats with restraint systems. According to article 3, these systems should meet the corresponding stipulated regulations.

  • Decree 81/2014 on the regulations of Law 19.061.
According to article three of the decree, Child Restraint Systems should meet the specifications indicated in appendixes I, II, III, IV and V of the Decree.

*This decree 81/2014 has several appendixes including the certification of Child Restraint Systems, helmets and other elements. They are all attached in the folders.
Corresponding legal references:

References in:

  • Article 73 section 7 of the Venezuela Road Transport Law:
" All drivers of a motor vehicle are subject to the following obligations:
[…] To ensure that children under ten (10) occupy the rear seats of the vehicle. Infants should be transported, in all cases in special seats for this purpose.”
  • Article 85 of the Venezuela Road Transport Law:

“In all freight vehicles with a capacity of over three thousand five hundred kilograms (3,500 Kg), it is not permitted to transport children under ten (10); with the exceptions foreseen in the Regulations of this Law. In public transport vehicles, it is not permitted for children under ten (10), people with disability and pregnant women to travel in the front seats. For this purpose, vehicles should have specially equipped areas and seat".

FINES : Article 170 of the Venezuela Road Transport Law, point 11: it is qualified as a "lesser offence" (5 Tax Units) to transport children under 10 in the front seats of the vehicle.
Failure to use seat belts, or ensure the safety of other passengers of the vehicle will imply a fine of 10 Tax Units (article 169).
Corresponding legal references::
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