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Other studies-International

International studies
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Year: 2011

Author: Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC), Australia

This study, was carried out using 12 families with a total of 25 children, observed in their vehicles over a 3 week period, using video in an attempt to identify distractions whilst driving caused by the children.

In 98% of the journeys there were distractions

Of those 12% were caused by children in the back seats.

The most common distraction caused by the children was when the driver turned their head to look behind or used the mirror to look behind.

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Are child occupants a significant source of driving distraction? Conclusion in Spanish

Year: 2010

Author: Fundación Gonzalo Rodríguez

Sponsors:Foundation FIA, World Bank global fund for road safety, United States Centre for the prevention and control of diseases (CDC).

A complete manual of 140 pages covering themes such as road safetyplanning and up to date information on the use of child safety systems.

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Handbook of good practice: dealing with child safety when passengers in a vehicle

Year: 2010

Authors: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

This study analyzes the level of the most frequent injuries and associated disabilities in different areas of the body of children under 8,injured in car accidents, using as the basis of the analysis, the main American data bases: The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) General Estimates System (GES) y el National Trauma Data Bank- National Sample Project (NTDB-NSP).

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Children Injured in Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes

Year: 2009.

Author: World Health Organization (WHO)

Sponsor: Fundación FIA, Global Road Safety Partnership andy World Bank.

This a manual to explain the importance of using seat belts and child restraint systems and to evaluate the situation in determinate countries, to be able to plan and manage a promotional program for the use of seat belts and child safety systems. How to develop andimplement the interventions contained within the program and lastly to evaluate the program.

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Seat belts and child restraint systems. A road safety manual for decision makers and professionals.

Year: 2009.

Author: World Health Organization (WHO).

Approximately half of the countries in the world afford some type of legislation with regard to the use of vehicle child safety systems: more than 90% of the wealthiest countries have legislation but this is only 20% of the poorest countries. This worldwide study offers a summary of the level of implementation of the recommendations made in the Global report on road safety, carried out by WHO, IN 2004.

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Global status report on road safety: time for action

Year: 2008.

Author: European regional office of the World Health Organization (WHO).

Unintentional injuries are the principal cause of death in people between the ages of 5 an 19 years of age. In 2004, 42,000 children and adolescents between 0 and 19 years of age died of unintentional injuries in Europe (including those killed in car accidents). The highest rate of mortality is in the countries with middle to low-income levels. where 5 in every 6 deaths in the infant population is due to injury. It is estimated that in Europe in 2004 16,400 children and adolescents between 0 and 19 years of age died of injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. If every country had the same amount of deaths as those with the lowest rate, 7,900 young lives could be saved each year. That is to say half of all these deaths.

Learn more by downloading the report at:

European report on the prevention of injury to the child population

Year: 2008.

Author: World Health Organization (WHO) y UNICEF.

Every year, around 10 million children are injured or disabled as a consequence of a road traffic accident. These accidents are at world level the principal cause of death in Young people between 10 and 19 years of age and the primary cause of childhood disability in general. In the low to middle income countries, the number of children killed in traffic accidents could double in the next 15 years. This study analyzes every question, offering some interesting conclusions regarding measures to avoid these accidents.

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World report on Child Injury prevention

Year: 2008.

Author: Dutch National Road Safety Research Institute (SWOV).

An interesting summary of the available literature and a statistical analysis of Dutch child road safety, where the number of children between 0 and 14 years of age either killed or hospitalized have shown a considerable decrease over the last decades. Some of the principal factors to explain this reduction are their program of “sustainable safety” to improve their integral road safety, better car safety and the increase in use of child seats, amongst others.

Learn more by downloading the report at:

The road safety of children: A crash analysis and literature study. SWOV report R-2008-06

Year: 2008

Author: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI)

Sponsors: National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers

This was an in-depth investigation of traffic accidents involving 57 pregnant women, from which some interesting conclusions can be drawn. Factors that influence the probability of injuries to the fetus are the severity of the accident, injuries sustained by the mother and the correct use of safety features (seat belts and airbag). The pregnant women should use the seat belt as the best method of protecting the fetus.

Year: 2008

Author: Vehicle Safety Consultancy Ltd

Sponsor: ANEC (European Consumer Association)

An investigation of a sample of real accidents in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the United States in which the children involved were using a restraining system but suffered grave or mortal injuries. The study was to analyze the benefits to children travelling in seats facing backwards asopposed to looking forward.  

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Study of the behavior of child restraint systems

Year: 2006.

Author: European Child Safety Alliance (ECSA) y European Association for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion (EuroSafe).

Sponsor: European Commission, The association for the prevention of injuries and the promotion of safety in Europe (Eurosafe), The University of West England and Johnson & Johnson Europe.

This demonstrates that, devices to hold the children when passengers are correctly used, injuries are reduced by 90% to 95% inthe backward facing devices and 60% in those that face forward. This guide helps the interested parties in the member states to promote good practice and planning and to finalize strategies to abolish childhood injuries. There are four sections of interest: 

What do we know about the focus of good practice in the prevention of involuntary childhood injury?

Best practice “a simple view”

How and when to use these best practices in planning strategies for the prevention of these injuries

Studies of best practice in Europe.

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Guide to good practices for the safety of children

Year: 2004. 

Author: Organization for economic cooperation and development (OCDE).

A report into the progress during the last twenty years in the area of child road safety in the countries of the OCED and whose main purpose is to highlight those programs and strategies that actually work and can be adopted by every country within the OCED to improve child road safety, with a view to identifying any areas that may be improved in the future.

Year: 2003.

Author: Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).

Sponsor: Swedish National Road Administration.

The available statistics show that child seats used with the child looking backwards are an effective measure to improve road safety. This study encompasses a complete review of the literature available on child safety in the automobile.

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Child safety in cars

Summary of evidence regarding interventions to increase the use of child seats.

Year: 2001

Authors: Community Guide Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (EE UU)

A summary of the effectiveness of the programs to increase the use of child seats in automobiles. In total 3,500 references are reviewed from which 72% are included in the final summary. 

In conclusion, it indicates that legislation and the programs of seat distribution combined with education directed at parents and teachers are the most effective measures.

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Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to increase use of child safety seats

Campaigns

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Year: 2011

Author: Madrid Department of Transport, Infrastructure and Health

A campaign to inform and educate the people of Madrid about the correct use of seat belts and restraining systems approved when travelling with children, the information material (leaflets and posters) gives a review of current legislation and types of child seats available. Also giving information as to how best to travel with children in other vehicles such as taxis and buses. 

More information at: 

Department of transport and infraestructure

Year: 2010

Author: STOP Accidents (Governament of  Aragón)

Sponsors: Savings Bank (Caja de Ahorros de la Inmaculada) (CAI) and the Government of Aragón.

Campaign directed at parents, grandparents, teachers and child minders to give an awareness of the need to use child-restraining systems when the children travel in vehicles. The data indicates that education programs are still necessary to ensure parents that are aware that safety measures are important whether on a long or short journey.

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Governament of Aragón

Year: 2010

Author: Department of health and Transport, Government of Catalonia

This campaign is aimed at informing families about the different types of child seats available and their correct use. To inform them of simple strategies so encourage the children to accept child seats and backup any preventative actions advised by pediatricians or clinics.

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Governament of Catalonia

Year: 2010 (campaing began in 2006)

Author: Catalan transport service, Government of Catalonia

Focused on consolidating habits and the necessity of the correct use of child safety seats in automobiles, especially at the age of understanding between 7 and 11years of age. During a month adverts were re-transmitted on TV and radio and a publicity trailer visited various Catalan towns.

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Governament of Catalonia

Year: 2008.

Author: Royal Automobile Club of Catalonia (RACE). Collaborators: Traffic Department, Spanish Pediatric Association (AEP), Disney and the Association for the study of Spinal injuries (AESLEME).

Sponsor: Play.

A national campaign about the use of child restraining systems, carried out with the collaboration of the Spanish pediatric association (AEP). The program was based on a report into laboratory crash tests, which included head-on crashes with a baby seat (pointing backwards) and the incorrect installation of the front airbag.

Year: 2006.

Author: The participants were the Royal Automobile Club of Spain (RACE) and the center for investigation and documentation (CIDE) of the Ministry of Education and Science.

Sponsors: European Commission and other participants in the program.

The campaign consisted of the distribution of leaflets, which could be affixed to the harness of the child seats.

More information at:

EUCHIRES

Help in Spain

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Under the slogan “Child Safety has no Price”, MAPRE FOUNDATION and Ford Spain launched in 2008 a campaign to promote the use of child seats in the automobile. For 60 Euros anyone could buy an approved seat for children between 9 and 36 kilos (group I, II and III). The seats could then be refunded after 36 months by visiting a Ford showroom. This offer was not limited to ford cars but was available to any car, make or model that was maintained and serviced at a Ford workshop.

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Ford

Road Safety

In any MIDAS center in Spain you can buy a safety seat for the groups En 0+ / I / II / III (Seats that cover all age groups) or any seats equipped with the ISOFIX quick installation suitable for the groups I / II / III.

The cost of the seat is 95 Euros (65 more should you opt for the ISOFIX system) At the time of purchase MIDAS will provide various coupons offering discounts on future servicing in any of the MIDAS workshops. The discounts offered add up to the total cost of the child seat (or as maybe, the total cost of the child seat and the ISOFIX system) 

More information at:

Safe babies by Midas

If you are aware of any studies or campaigns that are not included and you would be willing to help us complete the list, you can send us your suggestions or comments.

The government of Castilla and Leon, through their Families and Equal Opportunities Department, between 2003 and 2010 financed a child seat loan program for the group 0 (up to 10 kilos) and directed toward parents and nursery nurses of babies between 0 and 9 months and resident in Castilla and Leon. 

The Federation of Organizations for people with learning disabilities of Castilla and Leon managed the distribution of the seats.

If you are aware of any studies or campaigns that are not included and you would be willing to help us complete the list, you can send us your suggestions or comments.

The council of Orense initiated in 2009 a free loan service for child safety seats for low-income families or anyone about to embark on an unexpected trip with children.

This loan service, available to low-income families initially had available 35 child seats. Another 5 were available for anyone making occasional unexpected trips, such as to the airport or a weekend away.

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Campaign sit me, feel me

If you are aware of any studies or campaigns that are not included and you would be willing to help us complete the list, you can send us your suggestions or comments.

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